Monday, January 6, 2014

The Decline of Unions In America

Soon to become history, if Conservatives have their way...

Another twofer today today to explain the decline of unions in America , a story by Ricard Wolfe at the Guardian.com, "Organized labor's decline in the US is well-known. But what drove it?," then an article by Jack Heyman at Counterpunch.org, "Inequality of Wealth and the Role of Unions."

Yesterday we posted an article about "The Real Reason The Middle Class Is Dead," and now we find out what happened to union membership in this country, starting off with Mr. Heyden's article, showing us what happened:

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"I headed home for the holidays to Lakewood, New Jersey, once a beautiful resort renowned for its lake, pine forests and clean air. At the turn of the last century, it was home for some of the wealthiest in this country. Railroad magnate George J. Gould, then the seventh richest man in America, built a palatial estate with Italian gardens by the town’s lake. His financier father and railroad mogul, Jay Gould, once infamously proclaimed, 'I can hire half of the working class to kill the other half.'

"John D. Rockefeller, the richest capitalist in the world at the time, built a 30-room summer residence with a golf course and stables on 300 acres. Lakewood is only a short train ride from New York City. So, these social elites would pack up their entourage- ladies’ maids, cooks, stable hands, chambermaids, governesses, china, linens, jewelry and clothing- and take the train to Lakewood.

"When I was growing up in the ‘50s Lakewood was a small, ethnically-mixed, working class community of some 15,000 people. The Gould and Rockefeller estates had been turned into a college and county park, respectively. Skating on Lake Carasaljo was a favorite winter activity of the townsfolk and we prided ourselves in our local sports heroes who made it to the pros, Jack Arden in basketball and my friend, Dickie Estelle, pitcher for the San Francisco Giants. Lakewood, like Petaluma, California, was the center of a community of Jewish chicken farmers, which during the McCarthy period was riven with anti-communist Zionists on one side, leftists on the other. The chicken farmers are long gone.

"Nowadays, Lakewood is a city of nearly 100,000 people, looking more like a Williamsburg, Brooklyn ghetto of 30 years ago than a small, central Jersey town. Its predominantly Hasidic Jewish community runs the local public school board, not without controversy. Their kids go to private religious schools yet they receive public largesse in the form of transportation and educational programs, provoking the ire of townsfolk including secular Jews.

"Yet, the most glaring change in Lakewood is its Tent City for the homeless, situated in the pine barrens for the last couple of years. While I was there a man died at Tent City the day before Thanksgiving, freezing to death outside his tent. A week later four homeless men died during a cold snap back in Santa Clara county, California. Homelessness is not confined to Lakewood, New Jersey or San Jose, California. Appallingly, it’s a national problem with homeless encampments in every state.

"The September 11, 2013, Los Angeles Times article ('Income Gap Between Rich and Poor is Biggest in a Century') reads: 'The wealth gap between the top 1% and the bottom 99% in the U.S. is as wide as it’s been in nearly 100 years, a new study finds.' In other words it’s worse now than since the Great Depression and even back to the time of the robber barons, Gould and Rockefeller.


"FOR TRADE UNIONS: CLASS STRUGGLE OR CAPITULATION

"The U.S. is the most unequal of all advanced industrialized countries because the political system here has shaped the economy in ways that have led to powerlessness of the working class. In short, both political parties, Democrats and Republicans, represent the same capitalist class interests. There is no mass party that represents the working class. Unions have the power to reshape the wealth gap between rich and poor to some extent by negotiating decent contracts and striking to achieve that, if necessary. But they’re not doing that. In countries like Spain, France, Greece and South Korea, unions have been fighting back and even organizing general strikes. But in the U.S., the trade union bureaucracy has cowered in the face of attacks against workers and, indeed, continues to support the twin party system.

"In New Jersey, Republican Governor Christie relished bullying teachers in front of cameras at town hall meetings, as he pushed to cut benefits of public workers. He demagogically blames school teachers and other public workers not the bankers for the economic crisis. Unions in New Jersey have done little to challenge Christie by withholding labor power, i.e. striking.

"In Wisconsin unionized state workers tried to maintain their standard of living by courageously fighting to defend collective bargaining rights against attacks from Republican Governor Scott Walker by occupying the state capitol. They inspired workers, many of whom were calling for a general strike, but union leaders derailed that struggle into Democrat Party electoral campaigns to recall Walker and elect Democrats. It failed miserably. Now union officials have turned to the courts, the other part of the political system which is tilted heavily toward the wealthy, the capitalist class.


"Democrat pundits like Robert Reich, former Secretary of Labor under Clinton, and economist Paul Krugman rail against the ever-increasing disparity in wealth, blaming the Republicans. The fact of the matter is the Democrats have been playing a concomitant role in holding down workers. Just recently they agreed to a federal budget that eliminates 1.3 million workers from receiving extended unemployment benefits in the midst of this crisis. Hypocritically, Obama calls income disparity the greatest challenge of our time. To garner workers’ votes in the coming election they’ll call for raising the minimum wage minimumly for the working poor. The Democrats in New Jersey are calling for a measly increase of $1 an hour to the minimum wage of $7.25 tied to the CPI. Christie also supports raising the minimum wage $1 but over three years. And both parties in a bipartisan effort cut food stamps for the poor. Still, Obama wants to lower social security benefits by using a 'chained CPI' which does not reflect real inflation and could reduce seniors’ income by some $20,000 in 10 years. Elephants or asses: a choice of worst or worser for workers trying to level the playing field.

"In California this summer when Bay Area transit workers were striking, Democrat Governor Brown appealed to the union officials to call off an effective strike on its fourth day. They readily complied and without a membership vote called the strike off. After further delays, Brown then imposed the state’s version of Taft-Hartley forcing transit workers to work while negotiations were supposed to have continued but didn’t. When Taft-Hartley Act, tagged the 'slave labor' bill, first passed, organized labor was outraged and protested. Now BART union officials actually pleaded for Brown to use his “silver bullet”, as they fondly referred to it.

"Even after the 60-day 'no strike' ban expired, union officials didn’t resume the strike as threatened. A week later two strikebreakers repairing the track were killed by BART managers driving a scab train. Public anger which had been orchestrated by the media against the workers, quickly turned against the BART Board of Directors. But with union officials calling the strike on again and off again, the memberships of SEIU 1021 and ATU 1555 became demoralized. Few showed up for picket duty. Then a tentative agreement was signed, but before the ink was dry, BART Board of Directors stunningly announced that they’d 'mistakely' included the Family Medical Leave Act, a paid benefit. The San Francisco Chronicle (December 3, 2013) reported 'After six months of contentious negotiations, two strikes and, finally, a hard-won labor agreement, BART’s two largest unions are not about to give in.' But that’s exactly what they did and the membership, angry but demoralized by the unions’ misleadership, ratified the contract. As Marx said, 'History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce.' Since BART workers set the standard for transit and other public workers in northern California much was at stake. Thus, is the inequality of wealth in this country is magnified.


"DEMOCRATS SHACKLE LABOR

"Worse still, Jerry Brown’s former advisor, Steve Glazer running for State Assembly during BART negotiations ran a despicable, high profile electoral campaign petitioning constituents to outlaw transit strikes. That was no fluke. Former Clinton NLRB chair Gould opined in the Los Angeles Times that banning strikes is insufficient. He says it’ll require binding arbitration as well! (LA Times, Aug. 15, 2013). This is on a par with Scott Walkers’ move to ban collective bargaining. It’s clear that the twin political parties-Democrat and Republican- work to advance capitalists’ interests against labor thereby widening the gap of wealth. Is there any more proof necessary to show that American workers need their own working class party to defend their interests?

"More? The repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act occurred under Clinton’s admininstration. This act built a firewall between commercial and securities firms. According to many economists, its repeal precipitated the latest crisis. Neo-liberal free trade agreements, supported by both parties seal the capitalist’s deal on a global level. Then, there’s the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the longest lasting wars in U.S. history. And overt acts of government repression at home have occurred with both parties at the helm sending a chilling message to organized labor–from Reagan’s shackling and arresting of the leaders of the PATCO air traffic controllers’ strike in 1980 to Obama’s sending an armed Coast Guard cutter to protect a strikebreaking ship loading grain at the multi-national EGT dock being struck by the longshore union in Longview, Washington last year.

"Historically, when workers’ leaders have stood up to represent workers in opposing imperialist wars or organizing strikes, the might of the political cudgel has been wielded against them: imprisoning Socialist railroad union leader Eugene V. Debs and black Wobbly Philadelphia longshore leader Ben Fletcher during WWI and Trotskyist James P. Cannon, leader of the organizers of the Minneapolis teamsters’ strike just before WWII, or to move to deport West Coast longshore union president and self-proclaimed Marxist Harry Bridges and maritime labor’s great orator Jamaican-born Communist Ferdinand Smith during the McCarthy witchunt. All this was done by Democratic presidents.


"WHICH WAY FORWARD FOR THE UNIONS?

"In the midst of the repressive Reagan years, the longshore workers in San Francisco were able to organize an 11-day anti-apartheid cargo boycott on a ship from South Africa. After his release from prison, Mandela on his 1990 world tour acknowledged the role of the longshore union in helping to bring down the apartheid government.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NtiIkA2oGD4&t=15m58s

"Black South African workers were able to bring down the apartheid regime but not its buttress, capitalism. So capitalism’s depredations have intensified wealth inequality. The median net worth for black households in the U.S. is worse than blacks under apartheid according to Sampie Terreblanche, a professor emeritus of economics at Stellenbosch University. (Worse Than Apartheid: Black in Obama’s America)

"A few corrupt blacks, like former NUM mineworkers’ leader now billionaire mineowner, Cyril Ramaphosa, one of the richest men in all of Africa, join whites extracting wealth while sitting atop the black masses. Ramaphosa called on the government to repress the striking miners at Marikana last year. 34 were massacred by police in an act that has been compared to some of the bloodiest during the apartheid regime.

"In December, the world glimpsed as President Jacob Zuma was roundly booed by blacks attending the Mandela memorial, a sign of the disenchantment with the ANC government’s corruption their impoverishment. NUMSA, the militant metalworkers’ union, the largest union in South Africa, has just announced that they are forming a workers’ socialist party committed to expropriating the mines to redistribute the wealth to the impoverished masses.

"The Coming Challenge for the West Coast Longshore Union

"Today, the U.S. trade union bureaucracy, by and large, accepts the domination of the employers at the workplace and collaborates by negotiating concessionary contracts. Even in the once-militant ILWU, the West Coast longshore union, officials show little sign of being up for the fight with grain monopolies. They signed a hugely concessionary contract with multi-national grain monopoly, EGT terminal, two years ago, which whetted the appetites of the other grain monopolies. Now, the union is locked out of grain facilities in Portland, Oregon and across the Columbia River in Vancouver, Washington, the home port of ILWU President 'Big Bob' McEllrath. In an unprecedented waterfront scene, scabs have been doing longshore work for months there. Longshoremen from those locals have been picketing those docks diligently in the face of police and scab harassment. What’s needed is a mass mobilization of longshore workers in all West Coast ports in solidarity with the grain ports. In 1990, when strikebreakers in Stockton were doing longshore work, all ports in Northern California were shut down and longshore workers marched on Continental Grain to chase off the scabs and defend their jobs. That’s what’s needed now to win union jurisdiction.

"Soon, the ILWU will be engaged in master contract negotiations for the coast. Before the last negotiations in 2008, longshore workers voted at the Coast Caucus to shutdown all West Coast ports to protest the imperialist wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Former ILWU President Dave Arian opposed it, arguing that it would be foolish for the union to organize such an illegal work stoppage, that it might undermine upcoming negotiations. The union could be fined. And President McEllrath wasn’t happy with it but when Los Angeles longshore president Jo Jo Cortez balked at shutting down the largest port in the country with 60% of the ILWU longshore membership, it was questionable whether the anti-war action had enough wind in its sails. Maritime employers had banked on disunity of longshore workers on the Coast with some ports shutting down and others, like Los Angeles, working. To their surprise rank-and-file unity prevailed and the whole West Coast was shut down on May Day, international workers day, to protest the wars. If unity hadn’t prevailed, there wouldn’t have been any real contract negotiations and the ILWU would not have achieved its historic May Day strike against imperialist war. When the employers’ Pacific Maritime Association threatened to sue under Taft-Hartley, the union warned there’d be no negotiations under such coercion. PMA dropped the suit in short order.

"Today, with grain monopolies pillorying ILWU in the Northwest ports, PMA is eager to jump in the ring for negotiations. Yet, another crack was spotted in the ILWU. In the port of Oakland, the most militant port, some longshoremen in violation of the union’s long-standing principles, egged on by a few union officials, crossed a picket line of port truckers, mostly immigrant workers trying to organize. Unless ILWU shuts down all West Coast ports to stop the scabbing now in the Northwest grain ports, PMA will have their way. The present ILWU leadership won’t do it. It’ll take a fire from below, the rank and file, in the militant tradition of the ILWU to to do it and to win.


"Another longshore action organized a few years ago shows the way forward. In response to AFL-CIO President Trumka’s call for solidarity actions in support of the embattled Wisconsin workers, S.F. longshore Local 10, in defiance of the Taft-Hartley Act which bans sympathy strikes, shutdown all ports in the Bay Area. Again, employers threatened a suit but dropped it. Shamefully, Trumka didn’t even raise a finger to aid the only union to concretely respond to his call for solidarity actions. That was two years before the ILWU quit the AFL-CIO.

"Apparently, Trumka, a former mineworkers’ union leader like Ramaphosa, believes that capitalism is the only way society can be organized. But workers’ leaders who led historic strikes—like Debs, Cannon and Bridges—believed, in their own way, that socialism is a better system for the working class because it eliminates the inequality of wealth by abolishing capitalism and establishing a system based on human need not profit. The phlegmatic U.S. labor movement, now 11% of the workforce, will continue to atrophy as the wealth disparity grows unless the class collaborationist trade union bureaucracy is replaced by a class struggle leadership. Developments in the South African metalworkers’ union, NUMSA, offer a beacon of hope for the future. Will other trade unions, in South Africa and around the world, follow?"

(Jack Heyman, a retired longshoreman, was one of the organizers in ILWU’s 1984 anti-apartheid action, the May Day 2008 anti-war ports shutdown and the march on the Stockton docks to stop the scabbing.)

Now on to the second piece, a new strategy to reverse labor's decline:

"To secure gains for working people requires a social transition that puts them in charge of producing society's services.

Anonymous workers Photograph: Richard Baker/Corbis

"Organized labor's decline in the US over the past half century is well-known; what drove that decline, less so. The New Deal's enemies – big business, Republicans, conservatives – had developed a coordinated strategy by the late 1940s. They would break up the coalition of organized labor, socialist and communist parties: the mass base that had forced through the 1930s New Deal. Then each coalition member could be individually destroyed.

"One line of attack used anti-communist witch-hunts (McCarthyism) to frighten socialists and labor unions into dissociating themselves from former communist allies. Another attack targeted socialists by equating them with communists and applying the same demonization. Still another attack, the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act, directly weakened labor unions, their organizing capability and their alliance with the left.


"Business and political leaders, mass media and academics cultivated a paranoid anxiety among Americans: suspect anything even vaguely leftist, see risks of 'subversion' everywhere, and avoid organizations unless religious or loudly patriotic. Legal, ideological and police pressures rendered communist and socialist parties tiny and ineffective. Destroying unions took longer. The unionized portion of private sector workers fell from a third to less than 7% now. Since 2007, conservatives used crisis-driven drops in state and city tax revenues to intensify attacks on public employee benefits and unions. Both were denounced as "excessive and unaffordable for taxpayers". That plus public worker layoffs reduced public sector unionization.

"Nor did labor unions or the left find or implement any successful strategy to counter the 50-year program aimed to destroy them.

"To reverse organized labor's decline and to rebuild the left requires either reviving the old New Deal coalition or forming a new comparably powerful alliance. That means confronting and outwitting the long demonization of unions and the left. It requires a strategy that engages and wins struggles with employers. More importantly, it requires a strategy to reposition labor unions and their allies as champions of broad social gains for the 99%. To escape the label of  'special interest' unions must work for far more than their own members.

"The needed strategy is available. It proposes a new alliance among willing labor unions, community organizations and social movements. The alliance's basic goal is a social transition in which workers cooperatives become an increasing proportion of business enterprises. The increasingly used term workers self-directed enterprises (WSDEs) stresses democratic decision-making. In WSDEs, all workers democratically decide what, how and where to produce and how to use the net revenues their work generates. In WSDEs, whether or not workers are owners or self-manage, they function, collectively and democratically, as their own board of directors, 'their own bosses'.

"This goal and strategy could solidify this alliance. Democratizing enterprises realizes inside them the same goals that inspire many community organizations and social movements. WSDEs established and nurtured by community organizations and social movements could, in turn, provide important financial and other resources for their allies.

"Labor unions could regain strength from such an alliance. For example, consider employers who demand concessions (lower wages and benefits) and threaten otherwise to relocate enterprises, often abroad. Unions have mostly compromised on concessions to retain employers. The proposed new alliance offers a new bargaining tool for these situations. If an employer relocated, the alliance would assist workers to try to continue the enterprise as a WSDE. The relocated employer risks competition from a WSDE asking customers to favor it over an employer who had abandoned workers and communities for higher profits.

"To establish new WSDEs in such ways, unions would draw upon their allied community organizations and social movements to mobilize local political support as well as funding. Local politicians could not easily refuse job-saving demands from that alliance (proven daily in Europe).

"Another way for the proposed alliance to help form WSDEs would be a bold new federal or state program to combat unemployment. This would follow the example of Italy's 1985 Marcora Law. That law offers a new, second alternative to the usual unemployment dole. An unemployed worker can instead choose to take all unemployment benefits as an immediate lump-sum payment and pool that with lump sums similarly chosen by at least nine other unemployed workers. The total must then be used as start-up capital for a workers coop. Marcora's success is one reason why Italy has many more workers coops than the US.

"These and still other actions by the proposed new alliance could build a significant WSDE sector while helping to solve major US social problems. That sector would enable many Americans to see and evaluate WSDEs. A WSDE sector gives Americans two new freedoms of choice: (1) between working in a top-down, hierarchical capitalist firm or a democratized worker coop, and (2) between buying the products of capitalist or cooperative enterprises. A significant WSDE sector would add its demands for government technical, financial, and other supports to those from other economic sectors.


"As the Republican and Democratic parties increasingly cannot or will not serve average Americans' economic needs, the proposed alliance, strategy and actions would do exactly that. Here lie opportunities for resurgence in the labor movement and the left.

"While reminiscent of the old New Deal coalition, the proposed new alliance would differ in one crucial dimension. The old coalition believed that it could not win more than progressive taxation, new regulations and new institutions (such as Social Security). It could not transform enterprises themselves. The old coalition left in their corporate positions the major shareholders and the boards of directors they selected. Those shareholders and boards then used corporate power and profits to systematically evade, weaken, and, when possible, dismantle the New Deal across the past 40 years.

"Building a WSDE sector in the economy applies the lesson of those years. To secure gains for working people requires a social transition that puts them in charge of producing society's goods and services. A democratic society requires a democratic economy and that, the new alliance would insist, means a transition to democratically organized enterprises. When this September's AFL-CIO convention considers building an alliance with community groups and social movements, the strategic focus on WSDEs ought to be included."

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Yes Virginia, "...it’s worse now than since the Great Depression and even back to the time of the robber barons, Gould and Rockefeller," with the Conservative strategy to revive feudalism in this country working just fine, and other than to roast the tootsies of the DINOs infecting our legislatures, this is the first time since the inception of this site that we have dissed the Democratic Party t.

But facts are facts, "(t)he repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act occurred under Clinton’s admininstration" and so did the death of the Fairness Doctrine, two of the greatest political setbacks for the country against the People - as we've preached time and time again - and with regard to unions we take the unions' side until the Dems come around and the DINOs become extinct.

After all, the "slave labor" bill called the Taft-Hartley Act was passed in 1947 and the Dems have been in power many times after that, and when "..(t)he median net worth for black households in the U.S. is worse than blacks under apartheid," it's time to act, and act swiftly.  As the first article notes, "...socialism is a better system for the working class because it eliminates the inequality of wealth by abolishing capitalism and establishing a system based on human need not profit."

When Conservatism is finally made a crime, Glass-Steagall and the Fairness Doctrine will be reenacted, and the Taft-Hartley Act nullified to usher in a new, Golden Age of Unionism.



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“Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies in the
final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and
are not clothed.”

Dwight D. Eisenhower.


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